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Biotechnology is a set of techniques used to adapt plants, microbes, and animals for specific situations. Cellular biotechnologies include tissue culture and fermentation. Genetic biotechnologies include genomics, molecular-assisted selection, and transgenic crops (genetic engineering). NIFA funds research, education, and extension for developing and using biotechnologies for food and agriculture.

Genetic biotechnologies allow researchers to detect and map genes, describe gene functions, select for specific genes in genetic resources for breeding, and transfer genes for specific traits into organisms where they are needed.
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